UPSC Botany Syllabus 2019 (Mains Botany PDF Download)

UPSC Botany Syllabus 2019 (UPSC Mains Botany Syllabus and in Hindi Syllabus too) : Download UPSC Botany Syllabus in PDF for the upcoming year updated as per recent official notifications from the Central UPSC Exams Board. Botany  is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist or plant scientist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The overall UPSC Botany Syllabus for 2019 has been officially released recently and we have provided below the updated details on that. UPSC for Prelims consists of topics such as Current Affairs, Geography, Indian Polity etc. UPSC Syllabus for mains consists a total of 9 papers out of which 2 will be language papers.

Details of UPSC Botany Syllabus 2019

Botany Syllabus Scope 2 Papers
Subtopics Twelve
Preparation Time 190 Hours

Divisions in UPSC Botany Syllabus

The whole UPSC Botany syllabus has been divided into two papers. Paper-I of Anthropology syllabus consists of its basic Scope, Introduction topics, Relevance of Botany, Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Phanerogams: Gymnosperms etc.

Paper-II of UPSC Botany syllabus consists of advanced topics such as  Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics etc.

Paper-I : UPSC Botany Syllabus

Microbiology and Plant Pathology

  • Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses
  • viroids
  • bacteria
  • fungi and mycoplasma
  • Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry
  • Prion and Prion hypothesis

And other topics such as Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.


  • Algae
  • Fungi
  • Lichens
  • Bryophytes
  • Pteridophytes – structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint
  • Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance

Phanerogams: Gymnosperms

  • Concept of Progymnosperms
  • Classification and distribution of gymnosperms
  • Salient features of Cycada-les, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction
  • General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales
  • Geological time scale

And other subtopics such as Type of fossils and their study techniques. Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny. Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature;

Numerical taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology. Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families – Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae,

UPSC Botany Syllabus Mains Botany PDF Download

Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Astera-ceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae. Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes;

Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy. Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm – its development and function; Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony and apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.

Plant Resource Development

  • Domestication and introduction of plants
  • Origin of cultivated plants
  • Vavilov’s centres of origin
  • Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibre, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes, latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery
  • Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context
  • Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.


  • Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and dfferentiation
  • Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture
  • Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation
  • Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.

Paper-II : UPSC Botany Syllabus

Cell Biology

  • Techniques of cell biology
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells – structural and ultrastructural details
  • Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall), membranes-cell adhesion
  • membrane transport and vesicular transport
  • Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes)

And includes other topics such as Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction; Mitosis and meiosis;

Molecular basis of cell cycle; Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes – structure, behaviour and significance.

Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution

  • Development of genetics
  • Gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles)
  • Quantitative genetics and multiple factors
  • Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles
  • Linkage and crossing over
  • Methods of gene mapping, including molecular maps (idea of mapping function)
  • Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance

Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics

  • Methods of plant breeding
  • Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding
  • Use of apomixes in plant breeding
  • DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering
  • Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects
  • Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding
  • Tools and techniques – probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH. Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV)
  • Tests of significance (Z-test, ttest and chi-square test)
  • Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson)
  • Correlation and regression.

Physiology and Biochemistry

  • Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies
  • Photosynthesis – photochemical reactions
  • photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways
  • C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of phloem transport
  • Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)
  • Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism; Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation
  • Importance of secondary metabolites
  • Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome)
  • Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence
  • Growth substances – their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture
  • Growth indices, growth movements; Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology
  • Dormancy, storage and germination of seed; Fruit ripening – its molecular basis and manipulation.

Ecology and Plant Geography

  • Concept of ecosystem
  • Ecological factors
  • Concepts and dynamics of community
  • Plant succession; Concept of biosphere
  • Ecosystems
  • Conservation
  • Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation)
  • Plant indicators
  • Environment (Protection) Act. Forest types of India
  • Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Farmers’ Rights and Intellectual Property Rights
  • Concept of Sustainable Development
  • Biogeochemical cycles; Global warming and climatic change
  • Invasive species; Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Phytogeographical regions of India.

Conclusion : UPSC Botany Syllabus

It is always said that the wise men words are often neglected. However, we would like to again stress the fact that the Botany Syllabus in UPSC is one of the most important and crucial things that has to be properly taken care of.

Not just for examination point of view, Botany Syllabus in UPSC helps you in the overal development to become a good responsible officer who will play a crucial role in the development of the country in the decades to come.

Botany can be a good optional if you are extremely brilliant at it but i do have a few problems. Botany is not going to help an ias in any possible way.

Upsc may remove optionals in coming years.mind you its not a rumour but actual happening in near future.

If readers have any further doubts on UPSC Botany Syllabus, you can drop us a mail or even post your question below on our comments section.