UPSC Commerce Syllabus (IAS Mains 2019 PDF Optional)

UPSC Commerce Syllabus (UPSC Mains Commerce Notes PDF and also Hindi Books, Commerce Question Papers) : Download UPSC Commerce Syllabus in PDF for the upcoming year updated as per recent official notifications from the Central UPSC Exams Board. Commerce is “the activity of buying and selling, especially on a large scale”. Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that are in operation in any country or internationally. The overall UPSC Commerce Syllabus for next exam has been officially released recently and we have provided below the updated details on that. With Proper preparation, UPSC Commerce Syllabus can be easily taken over to the perfection.

Important Details on UPSC Commerce Syllabus

Syllabus Coverage 2 Divisions
UPSC Commerce Syllabus PDF Download
Current Sub Chapters Ten
Preparation Time 680 Hours

Prelude to UPSC Commerce Syllabus

Note First and foremost, you must talk to someone who has taken Commerce as an optional earlier and take their advice. There has been a common misconception among the students that UPSC Commerce Syllabus is a hard nut to crack and its better to leave it as an optional paper. You are absolutely wrong.

Even through the Commerce Syllabus portion in UPSC looks very huge and hard to study, once you start reading through few chapters, you will come to an absolute conclusion that UPSC Commerce Syllabus is one of the most interesting and easiest of all the papers in entire UPSC Syllabus.

UPSC Commerce Question Papers

Below we have provided the exclusive downloads of UPSC Commerce Question Papers. These Commerce Question Papers have been compressed so that the download will be much faster and it will consume less internet data.

Note that these UPSC Commerce Question Papers has been optimized for viewing on Mobile Devices and Tablets.

Section A: UPSC Commerce Syllabus

Accounting and Finance Accounting, Taxation & Auditing

Financial Accounting

  1. Accounting as a Financial Information System; Impact of Behavioural Sciences.
  2. Accounting Standards e.g., Accounting for Depreciation, Inventories, Research and Development Costs, Long-term Construction Contracts, Revenue Recognition, Fixed Assets, Contingencies, Foreign Exchange Transactions, Investments and Government Grants, Cash Flow Statement, Earnings Per Share.
  3. Accounting for Share Capital Transactions including Bonus Shares, Right Shares, Employees Stock Option and Buy- Back of Securities.
  4. Preparation and Presentation of Company Final Accounts. Amalgamation, Absorption and Reconstruction of Companies.

Cost Accounting : UPSC Commerce Syllabus

  1. Nature and Functions of Cost Accounting. Installation of Cost Accounting System.
  2. Cost Concepts related to Income Measurement, Profit Planning, Cost Control and Decision Making.
  3. Methods of Costing: Job Costing, Process Costing, Activity Based Costing. Volume  cost Profit Relationship as a tool of Profit Planning.
  4. Incremental Analysis/ Differential Costing as a Tool of Pricing Decisions, Product Decisions, Make or Buy Decisions, ShutDown Decisions etc.
  5. Techniques of Cost Control and Cost Reduction: Budgeting as a Tool of Planning and Control.
  6. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis. Responsibility Accounting and Divisional Performance Measurement.

Income Tax : UPSC Commerce Syllabus

  1. Definitions; Basis of Charge; Incomes which do not form Part of Total Income.
  2. Simple problems of Computation of Income (of Individuals only) under Various Heads, i.e., Salaries, Income from House Property, Profits and Gains from Business or Profession, Capital Gains, Income from other sources, Income of other Persons included in Assessees Total Income .
  3. Set – Off and Carry Forward of Loss.
  4. Deductions from Gross Total Income. Salient Features/Provisions Related to VAT and Services Tax.


  1. Company Audit: Audit related to Divisible Profits, Dividends, Special investigations, Tax audit.
  2. Audit of Banking, Insurance, Non-Profit Organizations and Charitable Societies/Trusts/Organizations.

Financial Management, Financial Institutions and Markets

Financial Management: Finance Function

  1. Nature, Scope and Objectives of Financial Management: Risk and Return Relationship.
  2. Tools of Financial Analysis: Ratio Analysis, Funds-Flow and Cash-Flow Statement.
  3. Capital Budgeting Decisions: Process, Procedures and Appraisal Methods.
  4. Risk and Uncertainty Analysis and Methods.
  5. Cost of capital: Concept, Computation of Specific Costs and Weighted Average Cost of Capital.
  6. CAPM as a Tool of Determining Cost of Equity Capital.
  7. Financing Decisions: Theories of Capital Structure – Net Income (NI) Approach, Net Operating Income (NOI) Approach, MM Approach and Traditional Approach.
  8. Designing of Capital structure: Types of Leverages (Operating, Financial and Combined), EBIT- EPS Analysis, and other Factors.
  9. Dividend Decisions and Valuation of Firm: Walters Model, MM Thesis, Gordans Model Lintners Model.
  10. Factors Affecting Dividend Policy.
  11. Working Capital Management: Planning of Working Capital.
  12. Determinants of Working Capital. Components of Working Capital – Cash, Inventory and Receivables.
  13. Corporate Restructuring with focus on Mergers and Acquisitions (Financial aspects only)

UPSC Commerce Syllabus IAS Mains Commerce Syllabus UPSC Mains Commerce Syllabus

Financial Markets and Institutions : UPSC Commerce Syllabus

  1. Indian Financial System: An Overview. Money Markets: Participants, Structure and Instruments.
  2. Commercial Banks. Reforms in Banking sector. Monetary and Credit Policy of RBI. RBI as a Regulator.
  3. Capital Market: Primary and Secondary Market.
  4. Financial Market Instruments and Innovative Debt Instruments; SEBI as a Regulator.
  5. Financial Services: Mutual Funds, Venture Capital, Credit Rating Agencies, Insurance and IRDA.

Section B: UPSC Commerce Syllabus

Organisation Theory and Behaviour, Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations

Organisation Theory

  1. Nature and Concept of Organisation;
  2. External Environment of Organizations – Technological, Social, Political, Economical and Legal;
  3. Organizational Goals – Primary and Secondary goals, Single and Multiple Goals; Management by Objectives.
  4. Evolution of Organisation Theory: Classical, Neo-classical and Systems Approach.
  5. Modern Concepts of Organisation Theory: Organisational Design, Organisational Structure and Organisational Culture.
  6. Organisational Design Basic Challenges;
  7. Differentiation and Integration Process; Centralization and Decentralization Process; Standardization / Formalization and Mutual Adjustment.
  8. Coordinating Formal and Informal Organizations.
  9. Mechanistic and Organic Structures.
  10. Designing Organizational structures Authority and Control; Line and Staff Functions, Specialization and Coordination.
  11. Types of Organization Structure Functional.
  12. Matrix Structure, Project Structure. Nature and Basis of Power , Sources of Power, Power Structure and Politics.
  13. Impact of Information Technology on Organizational Design and Structure. Managing Organizational Culture.

Organisation Behaviour : UPSC Commerce Syllabus

  1. Meaning and Concept; Individual in organizations: Personality, Theories, and Determinants; Perception – Meaning and Process.
  2. Motivation: Concepts, Theories and Applications. Leadership-Theories and Styles.
  3. Quality of Work Life (QWL): Meaning and its impact on Performance, Ways of its Enhancement.
  4. Quality Circles (QC)  Meaning and their Importance.
  5. Management of Conflicts in Organizations.
  6. Transactional Analysis, Organizational Effectiveness, Management of Change.

Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations

Human Resources Management (HRM)

Meaning, Nature and Scope of HRM, Human Resource Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Job Specification, Recruitment Process, Selection Process, Orientation and Placement, Training and Development Process, Performance Appraisal and 360 Feed Back, Salary and Wage Administration, Job Evaluation, Employee Welfare, Promotions, Transfers and Separations.

Industrial Relations (IR) : UPSC Commerce Syllabus

  1. Meaning, Nature, Importance and Scope of IR, Formation of Trade Unions, Trade Union Legislation, Trade Union Movement in India.
  2. Recognition of Trade Unions, Problems of Trade Unions in India. Impact of Liberalization on Trade Union Movement.
  3. Nature of Industrial Disputes : Strikes and Lockouts , Causes of Disputes, Prevention and Settlement of Disputes.
  4. Workers Participation in Management: Philosophy, Rationale, Present Day Status and Future Prospects.
  5. Adjudication and Collective Bargaining. Industrial Relations in Public Enterprises, Absenteeism and Labour Turnover in Indian Industries and their Causes and Remedies. ILO and its Functions.

Also See Syllabus Details of Other Courses like:

UPSC Anthropology Syllabus UPSC Psychology Syllabus
GATE AE Syllabus CFA Level 1 Syllabus
FRM Level 1 Syllabus CS Professional Syllabus
UPSC Geography Syllabus UPSC Botany Syllabus
UPSC Zoology Syllabus UPSC Statistics Syllabus
UPSC Maths Syllabus UPSC Physics Syllabus

Conclusion on UPSC Mains Commerce Syllabus

It is always said that the wise men words are often neglected. However, we would like to again stress the fact that the Commerce Syllabus in UPSC is one of the most important and crucial things that has to be properly taken care of.

Not just for examination point of view, Commerce Syllabus in UPSC helps you in the overal development to become a good responsible officer who will play a crucial role in the development of the country in the decades to come.

Commerce can be a good optional if you are extremely brilliant at it but i do have a few problems. Commerceis not going to help an ias in any possible way.

There has been a news circulating that, UPSC may remove optionals in coming years.mind you its not a rumor but actual happening in near future.

If readers have any further questions on UPSC Commerce Syllabus, you can drop us a mail or even post your question below on our comments section.